Maintain/support immune system health. (Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin B12, Vitamin E, Iron, Pyridoxine, Vitamin A & Zinc only) Braun L and Cohen M, Herbs and Natural Supplements An Evidence Based Guide, Vol 2. 4th ed. Elsevier. 2015. Pp.1101-1124

Studies provide evidence of immunostimulating effects. Vitamin C favourable modulates lymphocytes and phagocytes, regulates naturalkiller cells and can influence antibody and cytokine synthesis. It is used widely to prevent & treat common respiratory infections e.g. colds and flu. This is based on its immune system effects, ability to reduce histamine levels & as gastrointestinal absorption of vitamin C increases in the common cold.

Autocrine effects include controlling immune function (especially antiinflammatory), cellular growth, maturation, differentiation and apoptosis. Besides influencing bone by maintaining calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, vitamin D may also contribute to bone health in other ways. Vitamin D enhances the immune system’s response to both bacterial and viral agents.

Vitamin B12 acts as an immunomodulator for cellular immunity. PS